The Oliver Typewriter
T
owards the end of the nineteenth century, the typewriter industry was developing rapidly. Before the Oliver typewriter entered the market, the text remained hidden on the underside of the platen as it was typeset until the platen was lifted. This was convention across many successful typewriter brands including Caligraph, Densmore, Fox, Remington, Smith Premier, and Yost.
The typewriter industry was soon revolutionized by Reverend Thomas Oliver and his eponymic invention. The Oliver typewriter features two towers of typebars that strike down onto the platen, allowing the text to remain visible at all times. Naturally, the Oliver was marketed as the “Standard Visible Writer”. From 1893 to 1928, this iconic downstrike mechanism was implemented by the Oliver Typewriter Company on every model they manufactured or licensed. From 1928 to 1947, this mechanism was used on “British Oliver” models produced by the Oliver Typewriter (Sales) Company, Ltd. (later known as the Oliver Typewriter Manufacturing Company, Ltd.) in England. From 1931 to May 1959, various European typewriter models were sold under the Oliver name.
Every typewriter bearing the Oliver name or downside mechanism has been researched and presented on this website. A large amount of information on Olivers has been not been readily available until now. This website is continually updated as new information is discovered. The majority of machines and ephemera shown on this site are in the author’s collection. For borrowed photos, credit is given to their respective owners.
My Olivers












Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 1
~500 machines produced from 1893 TO 1896
Oliver No. 1
S/N 5965
Sammlung Historischer Schreibmaschinen
Monika & Berthold Kerschbaumer
  • Only model manufactured in Dubuque, Iowa
  • Only model with flat handles
  • Nickel-plated with black key tops
  • Non-removable carriage

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
PROTOTYPE MADE FROM TIN CAN STRIPS AND RUBBER
OCT 30, 1894
PATENT NO. 450,107 (NOT DOWNSTRIKE, SIMILAR TO HAMMOND) FILED
DEC 3, 1894
PATENT NO. 450,107 (NOT DOWNSTRIKE, SIMILAR TO HAMMOND) GRANTED
JUL 9, 1895
PATENT NO. 528,484 (NO. 1 WITH RECTANGULAR BASE) FILED
AUG 21, 1895
NO. 1 INTRODUCED
001
AUG 1, 1893
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 1 ADVERTISEMENT
SEP 1893
PATENT NO. 542,275 (NO. 1 DESIGN) FILED
SEP 19, 1893
PATENT NO. 528,484 (NO. 1 WITH RECTANGULAR BASE) GRANTED
OCT 30, 1894
CANADIAN PATENT NO. 49,711 (NO. 1 DESIGN) FILED
DEC 3, 1894
PATENT NO. 542,275 (NO. 1 DESIGN) GRANTED
JUL 9, 1895
CANADIAN PATENT NO. 49,711 (NO. 1 DESIGN) GRANTED
AUG 21, 1895
EARLIEST KNOWN OLIVER NO. 1
284
OCT 30, 1894 AND JUL 9, 1895 PATENTS SHOWN, 284 PROBABLY ALSO SHOWS THESE
288
FIGURES MOVED ABOVE LETTERS ON KEY TOPS
395/400
LATEST KNOWN OLIVER NO. 1
400
PATENT NO. 562337 (NO. 1 DESIGN) FILED
MAR 2, 1896
PATENT NO. 562337 (NO. 1 DESIGN) GRANTED
JUN 16, 1896
LAST OLIVER NO. 1 PRODUCED
500?
DEC 1896?
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 2
30,000 machines produced from DECEMBER 1896 TO 1901
Oliver No. 2
S/N 5965
Sammlung Historischer Schreibmaschinen
Monika & Berthold Kerschbaumer
  • First model manufactured in Woodstock, Illinois
  • Early machines were nickel-plated with optional green finish- eventually the nickel-plated finish became standard with optional nickel-plated finish

Oliver No. 2
S/N 29546

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 2 / MONOPOL-STOLZENBERG NO. 2 INTRODUCED
5001
DEC 1896?
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 2
5050
JUN 16, 1896 PATENT SHOWN (5050 PROBABLY ALSO SHOWS THIS)
5315
OPTIONAL GREEN FINISH INTRODUCED
1897?
EARLIEST KNOWN GREEN FINISH
5476
SIDE PANELS CHANGED TO OPEN-O LOGO
7187/8787
MAR 1, 1898
MAR 1, 1898 PATENT ADDED (RIBBON COVERS WITH ROUND HOLES)
1898
APR 7, 1891 PATENT ADDED, LATER SHIFT MECHANISM
RIBBON COVER HOLES CHANGED FROM ROUND TO LONG, PLASTIC KEY COMB CHANGED TO METAL, NO CUT OUT ON BASE, KEY ATTACHMENTS THICKENED, LATER BACK
15085/16019
"NO. 2" ADDED TO PAPER TABLE
18630/25816
EARLIEST KNOWN MONOPOL-STOLZENBERG NO. 2
23354
LAST NO. 2 PRODUCED
35000
1901
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 3
148,000 machines produced from 1901 TO MARCH 1907
Oliver No. 3
S/N 41702
Chestnut Ridge Typewriter Museum
Herman J. Price

Oliver No. 3
S/N 175419
  • Optional nickel-plated finish
  • Optional black key tops

Oliver No. 3
S/N 173399

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 3 / MONOPOL-STOLZENBERG NO. 3 / STOLZENBERG NO. 3 INTRODUCED
35001
1901
EARLIEST KNOWN MONOPOL-STOLZENBERG NO. 3
36215
1901
HOLES IN FRAME ADDED
41702/81363
"MONOPOL-STOLZENBERG NO. 3" CHANGED TO "STOLZENBERG NO. 3"
55756/89075
SHIFT LOCK LEVER UPDATED
90119/95361
RIBBON HOLDER UPDATED
106542/115307
RIBBON HOLDER UPDATED
134937/146518
EARLIEST KNOWN LATIN AMERICAN OLIVER
146518
LAST NO. 3 PRODUCED
183000
MAR 1907
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 5
311,000 machines produced from MARCH 1907 TO 1914
Oliver No. 5
S/N 188963

Oliver No. 5
S/N 389421

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 5 / REVILO NO. 5 INTRODUCED
183001
MAR 1907
BELL CLAP UPDATED
188963/202692
TAB KEY ADDED
212001
1910
CARRIAGE BEARING UPDATED
202692/228917
PENCIL CARRIER UPDATED
231355/238082
1911?
RIBBON REVERSE AND PATENT DATE PLAQUES UPDATED
243534/246891
1911?
EARLIEST KNOWN REVILO NO. 5
275198
BACKSPACER ADDED, KEYTOPS CHANGED FROM CELLULOID CAPS TO SOLID
280001
1912
TAB AND MARGIN KEYTOPS CAPITALIZED
303508/318555
EARLIEST KNOWN PRINTYPE
385314
BRASS TYPE GUARDS CHANGED TO STEEL
383463/386425
SHIFTING MECHANISM UPDATED
387704/389421
CARRIAGE BEARING UPDATED
389421/399432
LAST NO. 5 PRODUCED
494000
1914
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 7
57,000 machines produced from 1914 TO 1915
Oliver No. 7
S/N 509570

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 7 INTRODUCED
494001
1914
LAST NO. 7 PRODUCED
551000
1915
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 9
449,000 machines produced from 1915 TO 1922
Oliver No. 9
S/N 877799

Oliver No. 9
S/N A900380X

Some Oliver No. 9 machines have a variant keyboard with the keys staggered differently. Traditionally, from left to right, the keys protrude from the top row, the bottow row, and then the middle row. The alternate keyboard staggers in order from the top row, the middle row, and then the bottom row. Some of the symbols and other characters were rearranged on the alternate keyboard. The alternate keyboard features a key with a period in all three positions (regular, CAP, and FIG). This means the typist does not have to shift for a period as they do using the standard Oliver keyboard. This alternate keyboard is also found on some Oliver No. 11 machines.

Traditional Keyboard
Oliver No. 9 Traditional Keyboard

Alternate Keyboard
Oliver No. 9 Alternate Keyboard

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 9 / NO. L-10 / REVILO NO. 9 INTRODUCED
551001
1915
ONLY KNOWN REVILO NO. 9
554030
1916
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. L-10
585889
800000
1919
KEY COVER CHANGED
873975/877799
EARLIEST KNOWN ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX), ALSO HAS X SUFFIX
A900380X
ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX) AND X SUFFIX
A928771X
LATEST KNOWN ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX) AND X SUFFIX
A975283X
EVERY NO. 9 AFTER HAS ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (EXCLUDES NO. L-10 WHICH HAS SPANISH KEYBOARD)
A980001
LAST NO. 9 PRODUCED
A1000000
1922
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 11
35,000 machines produced from 1922 TO 1928
Oliver No. 11
S/N 1027900
  • First model with black finish, pinstriping, and no side handles
  • Some examples have "Alternate" keyboard but none have "A" prefix (see Oliver No. 9)
  • Some examples have "B" prefix; the meaning is unknown

Oliver No. 11
S/N B1025192
15" Carriage

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-12 INTRODUCED
1000001
1922
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. L-12, EARLIEST KNOWN B PREFIX
B1003267
1922
TYPEWRITER IN CIRCLE IMAGE ADDED TO PAPER TABLE (EXCLUDES NOS. L-12 & L-13)
B1011931/B1015109
- 1018000
1923
1018001 - 1020000
1924
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 12
1021181
1924
- 1025000
1925
NO. L-12 REPLACED BY NO. L-13
B1026139/1032141
LAST NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-13 PRODUCED
1035000
1928
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Oliver No. 15
~6000 machines produced from 1928 TO 1932 (EARLIER)
~28,390 machines produced from ~1933 to 1947 (LATER)
Oliver No. 15 (Earlier)
Oliver No. 15
S/N LC753

Oliver No. 15 (Later)
Oliver No. 15
S/N CS15326
C-Size Carriage (15")
  • First model manufactured in Great Britain
  • Earlier version has gloss finish with ring-and-glass key tops, later version has crinkle finish with composite key tops

Oliver No. 15 (Later)
Oliver No. 15
S/N CL8665
B-Size Carriage (12")

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 15 (GENERATION I) INTRODUCED
LC001
1928
LATEST KNOWN LC PREFIX
LC1252
LC2000
1929
LC PREFIX CHANGED TO L
L3000
1930
EARLIEST KNOWN L (WITHOUT C) PREFIX
L3169
LATEST KNOWN L (WITHOUT C) PREFIX
L4258
L5000
1931
LAST EARLIER NO. 15 PRODUCED
L6000
1932
Navigation
LATER NO. 15 INTRODUCED
CL6001?-
1933?
EARLIEST KNOWN CL PREFIX
CL6947
1933?
-CL7000
1933?
CL7001-CL8000
1934?
CL8001-
1935?
CL8665
1935?
-CLXXXX?
1935?
CS15001?-
1938?
CS15105
1938?
CS15608
1938?
-CS1XXXX
1938?
CT1XXXX-
1939?
CT19083
1939?
-CT19999?
1939?
EA20000-EA24750
1940
EB24751-EB28350
1941
EC28351-EC31800
1942
ED31801-ED34050
1943
EE34051-EE34151
1944
EF34152-EF34260
1945
EG34261-EG34345
1946
LAST LATER NO. 15 PRODUCED
EH34346-EH34390
1947
Fabrik Stolzenberg Olivers

Oliver Nos. 2, 3, and 4 were distributed throughout Europe by Fabrik Stolzenberg (Stolzenberg Factory). They were based in Oos Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with subsidiaries in Berlin, Hamburg, and Cologne. Fabrik Stolzenberg sold the Oliver No. 2 as the Oliver Monopol-Stolzenberg. This name initially carried over to the Oliver No. 3. Sometime between serial numbers 55756 and 89075, the "Monopol" was dropped and the Oliver 3 machines were branded as "Stolzenberg". Once the Oliver No. 4 was introduced 1904, Fabrik Stolzenberg sold it as the Oliver Stolzenberg No. 4.

Fabrik Stolzenberg Olivers

Oliver Nos. 2, 3, and 4 were distributed throughout Europe by Fabrik Stolzenberg (Stolzenberg Factory). They were based in Oos Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with subsidiaries in Berlin, Hamburg, and Cologne. Fabrik Stolzenberg sold the Oliver No. 2 as the Oliver Monopol-Stolzenberg. This name initially carried over to the Oliver No. 3. Sometime between serial numbers 55756 and 89075, the "Monopol" was dropped and the Oliver 3 machines were branded as "Stolzenberg". Once the Oliver No. 4 was introduced 1904, Fabrik Stolzenberg sold it as the Oliver Stolzenberg No. 4.

Oliver Monopol-Stolzenberg No. 2
Oliver Monopol-Stolzenberg No. 2
S/N 23554
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard

Oliver Stolzenberg No. 3
Oliver Stolzenberg No. 3
S/N 175026
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard
  • 2 known Monopol-Stolzenberg No. 2 survivors
  • 4 known Monopol-Stolzenberg No. 3 survivors
  • ~12 known Stolzenberg No. 3 survivors
  • 3 known Stolzenberg No. 4 survivors

Oliver Monopol-Stolzenberg No. 3
Oliver No. 4
S/N 36215

Oliver Stolzenberg No. 4
Oliver No. 4
S/N D1379
The Linotype Company of Montreal
(Canadian Oliver Typewriter Company)

The Linotype Company of Montreal, also known as the Canadian Oliver Typewriter Company, manufactured versions of the Oliver Nos. 2 and 3 for sale in Canada and South America. Robert Messenger has a great article about the Canadian Olivers on ozTypewriter. Some Canadian No. 3 machines have vertically-mounted ribbon spools. The side panels of the Canadian Oliver No. 3 have "OLIVER" displayed in a more generic text than the standard No. 3. The Canadian No. 3 paper tables display "The Canadian Oliver Typewriter - Montreal". The Canadian Olivers have their own serial number scheme. It is unknown how many were made or where the serial numbers begin.

The Linotype Company of Montreal
(Canadian Oliver Typewriter Company)

The Linotype Company of Montreal, also known as the Canadian Oliver Typewriter Company, manufactured versions of the Oliver Nos. 2 and 3 for sale in Canada and South America. Robert Messenger has a great article about the Canadian Olivers on ozTypewriter. Some Canadian No. 3 machines have vertically-mounted ribbon spools. The side panels of the Canadian Oliver No. 3 have "OLIVER" displayed in a more generic text than the standard No. 3. The Canadian No. 3 paper tables display "The Canadian Oliver Typewriter - Montreal". The Canadian Olivers have their own serial number scheme. It is unknown how many were made or where the serial numbers begin.

Canadian Oliver No. 2
Canadian Oliver No. 2
S/N 1232
Gabriel Burbano
  • 1 known Canadian Oliver No. 2 survivor
  • 4 known Canadian Oliver No. 3 survivors

Canadian Oliver No. 3
Canadian Oliver No. 3
S/N 2422
Tyler Menard

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
CANADIAN NO. 2 INTRODUCED
1896 - 1897
ONLY KNOWN CANADIAN NO. 2
1232
1896 - 1897
CANADIAN NO. 3 INTRODUCED
1901
EARLIEST KNOWN CANADIAN NO. 3
1946
LATEST KNOWN CANADIAN NO. 3
2536
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 4
~2,430 machines produced from 1904 TO MARCH 1907
Oliver No. 4
S/N D1602
Belgian "AEUZF" Keyboard
  • Introduced three years after the Oliver No. 3 was introduced
  • 16 known survivors

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 4 INTRODUCED
D001
1904
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 4
D159
LATEST KNOWN NO. 4
D1602
LAST NO. 4 PRODUCED
D2423/D2444
MAR 1907
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 6
~18,000 machines produced from March 1907 to 1914
Oliver No. 6
S/N D4756
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 6 INTRODUCED
D2423/D2444
MAR 1907
BELL CLAP UPDATED
/D3362
TAB KEY ADDED
D3362/D4301
1910
CARRIAGE BEARING UPDATED
D4301/D4756
PENCIL CARRIER UPDATED
/D5038
RIBBON REVERSE AND PATENT DATE PLAQUES CHANGED
1911?
BACKSPACER ADDED
1912
TAB AND MARGIN KEYS CAPITALIZED
D9389/D12283
BRASS TYPE GUARDS CHANGED TO STEEL
SHIFTING MECHANISM UPDATED
D13877/D14510
CARRIAGE BEARING UPDATED
D12283/D18046
LATEST KNOWN NO. 6
D20511
LAST NO. 6 PRODUCED
1914
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 8
~500 machines produced from 1914 to 1915
Oliver No. 8
S/N D31283
French "AZERTY" Keyboard
  • 7 known survivors

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Navigation
NO. 8 INTRODUCED
D31001?
1914
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 8
D31162
LATEST KNOWN NO. 8
D31445
LAST NO. 8 PRODUCED
1915
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 10
~20,000 machines produced from 1915 to 1922
Oliver No. 10
S/N R51842

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 10 INTRODUCED
R41001?
1915
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 10
R41001
LATEST KNOWN NO. 10
R60724
LAST NO. 10 PRODUCED
1922
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 12
Produced from 1922 to 1928
Oliver No. 12
S/N 1021181
Dutch Keyboard
  • 7 known survivors

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-12 INTRODUCED
1000001
1922
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. L-12, EARLIEST KNOWN B PREFIX
B1003267
1922
TYPEWRITER IN CIRCLE IMAGE ADDED TO PAPER TABLE (EXCLUDES NOS. L-12 & L-13)
B1011931/B1015109
- 1018000
1923
1018001 - 1020000
1924
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 12
1021181
1924
- 1025000
1925
NO. L-12 REPLACED BY NO. L-13
B1026139/1032141
LAST NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-13 PRODUCED
1035000
1928
Export Olivers

Oliver Nos. 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 are 32-key versions of their respective preceding odd-numbered model. These models were not sold in the United States. Instead, they were sold throughout Europe. The No. 6 was also nickel-plated for Latin America. All of these models were produced in much lower quantities than their odd-numbered counterparts. However, the quantities are correlated, meaning if the odd-numbered model was produced in greater numbers, then so was the even-numbered model.

Oliver No. 16
~400 machines produced from 1928 to 1932
Oliver No. 16
S/N R1188
Dutch Keyboard
  • 4 known survivors

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 16 INTRODUCED
R1001?
1928
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 16
R1001
1928
LATEST KNOWN NO. 16
R1399
LAST NO. 16 PRODUCED
R1XXX
1932
Rebranded Desktops

The British Oliver Company rebranded a few European desktop machines as Olivers.

Rebranded Desktops

The British Oliver Company rebranded a few European desktop machines as Olivers.

Oliver Four Bank
5,000 machines produced from 1914 TO 1915
Oliver Four Bank
Image courtesy of
The Antikey Chop
Greg Fudacz
  • Rebranded Stolzenberg-Fortuna IV
  • 1 known survivor

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
FOUR BANK INTRODUCED
50001 - 51000
1931
51001 - 52000
1932
52001 -
1932
- 55300
1934
LAST FOUR BANK PRODUCED
1935
Rebranded Desktops

The British Oliver Company rebranded a few European desktop machines as Olivers.

Oliver No. 20
Produced from 1935 to 1950
Oliver No. 20
S/N 476384
  • Rebranded Halda No. 5

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 20 INTRODUCED
350001 -
1935
360001 -
1936
370001 -
1937
380001 -
1938
390001 -
1939
400001 -
1940
410001 -
1941
420001 -
1942
430001 -
1943
440001 -
1944
450001 -
1945
460001 -
1946
470001 -
1947
478017
1947
1947
480001 - 4811399
1948
4911400 -
1949
500001 -
1950
LAST NO. 20 PRODUCED
1950
Rebranded Desktops

The British Oliver Company rebranded a few European desktop machines as Olivers.

Oliver No. 21
33,489 machines produced from 1949 to May 1959
Oliver No. 21
S/N 021-4978
  • Rebranded Halda No. 6

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 21 INTRODUCED
921-0001
1949
921-9999
1949
021-0001 - 021-9999
1950
121-10000 - 121-11149
1951
221-11500 -
1952
221-12441
BEFORE APR 4, 1952
- 221-15700
1952
321-15701 - 321-17279
1953
421-17280 - 421-18849
1954
521-18850 - 521-20299
1955
621-20300 - 621-21553
1956
721-21554 - 721-22428
1957
821-22429 - 821-23334
1958
921-23335 -
1959
LAST NO. 21 PRODUCED
- 921-23490
May 1959
Latina & Revilo Olivers

The Oliver Typewriter Company manufatured nickel-plated Oliver models 3, 5, 6, and 7 for sale in Latin America. The No. L-10 is the nickel-plated version of the No. 9 and Nos. L-12 and L-13 are nickel-plated versions of the No. 11. There are also Latin American Nos. 3 and L-10 with the standard green finish. There are no known examples of nickel-plated Nos. 4, 8, 10, or 12. In Argentina, nickel-plated Olivers were marketed as the Revilo (Oliver spelled backwards) becasue the name Oliver was already trademarked. The only known Revilo models are Nos. 5 and 9.

Latina & Revilo Olivers

The Oliver Typewriter Company manufatured nickel-plated Oliver models 3, 5, 6, and 7 for sale in Latin America. The No. L-10 is the nickel-plated version of the No. 9 and Nos. L-12 and L-13 are nickel-plated versions of the No. 11. There are also Latin American Nos. 3 and L-10 with the standard green finish. There are no known examples of nickel-plated Nos. 4, 8, 10, or 12. In Argentina, nickel-plated Olivers were marketed as the Revilo (Oliver spelled backwards) becasue the name Oliver was already trademarked. The only known Revilo models are Nos. 5 and 9.

Oliver Latina Nos. 3, 5, 6, & 7
Latina No. 3
Oliver No. 3
S/N 157526
Fernando Costa

Latina No. 6
Oliver No. 6
S/N D7505
Chestnut Ridge Typewriter Museum
Herman J. Price
Latina No. 5
Oliver No. 5
S/N 383463

Latina No. 7
Oliver No. 7
S/N 498492
Latina & Revilo Olivers

The Oliver Typewriter Company manufatured nickel-plated Oliver models 3, 5, 6, and 7 for sale in Latin America. The No. L-10 is the nickel-plated version of the No. 9 and Nos. L-12 and L-13 are nickel-plated versions of the No. 11. There are also Latin American Nos. 3 and L-10 with the standard green finish. There are no known examples of nickel-plated Nos. 4, 8, 10, or 12. In Argentina, nickel-plated Olivers were marketed as the Revilo (Oliver spelled backwards) becasue the name Oliver was already trademarked. The only known Revilo models are Nos. 5 and 9.

Oliver No. L-10
Oliver No. L-10
S/N 923370
  • Nickel-plated version of the No. 9
  • Distributed by the William A. Parker Company
  • 2 known green No. L-10 survivors

Some No. L-10 machines were given the standard style decal on the front while others have a red plaque.

Oliver No. L-10 Logo

Oliver No. L-10 Plaque

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 9 / NO. L-10 / REVILO NO. 9 INTRODUCED
551001
1915
ONLY KNOWN REVILO NO. 9
554030
1916
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. L-10
585889
800000
1919
KEY COVER CHANGED
873975/877799
EARLIEST KNOWN ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX), ALSO HAS X SUFFIX
A900380X
ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX) AND X SUFFIX
A928771X
LATEST KNOWN ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (A PREFIX) AND X SUFFIX
A975283X
EVERY NO. 9 AFTER HAS ALTERNATE KEYBOARD (EXCLUDES NO. L-10 WHICH HAS SPANISH KEYBOARD)
A980001
LAST NO. 9 PRODUCED
A1000000
1922
Standard Olivers

Most consider the standard Oliver models to be Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These models have 28 keys and were manufactured primarily for the U.S. market. Despite its limited production run, the Oliver No. 1 was the standard model on the market during its time. In addition, the Oliver No. 15 was the standard British Oliver model when the company was relocated to Britain. Oliver Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were also sold in limited quantities in Europe. Versions of these models, mostly nickel-plated, were sold in Latin America.

Latina & Revilo Olivers

The Oliver Typewriter Company manufatured nickel-plated Oliver models 3, 5, 6, and 7 for sale in Latin America. The No. L-10 is the nickel-plated version of the No. 9 and Nos. L-12 and L-13 are nickel-plated versions of the No. 11. There are also Latin American Nos. 3 and L-10 with the standard green finish. There are no known examples of nickel-plated Nos. 4, 8, 10, or 12. In Argentina, nickel-plated Olivers were marketed as the Revilo (Oliver spelled backwards) becasue the name Oliver was already trademarked. The only known Revilo models are Nos. 5 and 9.

Oliver Nos. L-12 & L-13
Oliver No. L-12
Oliver No. L-12
S/N B1015932

Oliver No. L-13
Oliver No. L-13
S/N B1032566
  • Nickel-plated versions of the No. 11
  • No. L-13 replaced No. L-12 when distributors changed
  • No. L-12 distributed by the William A. Parker Company, No. L-13 by Martinez and Rubio
  • ~7 known No. L-12 survivors, 5 known No. L-13 survivors

Oliver Nos. L-12 and L-13 machines have plaques on the front and back of the machine which list their respective distributors.

Oliver No. L-12 Logo

Oliver No. L-12 Plaque

Oliver No. L-13 Logo

Oliver No. L-13 Plaque

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-12 INTRODUCED
1000001
1922
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. L-12, EARLIEST KNOWN B PREFIX
B1003267
1922
TYPEWRITER IN CIRCLE IMAGE ADDED TO PAPER TABLE (EXCLUDES NOS. L-12 & L-13)
B1011931/B1015109
- 1018000
1923
1018001 - 1020000
1924
EARLIEST KNOWN NO. 12
1021181
1924
- 1025000
1925
NO. L-12 REPLACED BY NO. L-13
B1026139/1032141
LAST NO. 11 / NO. 12 / NO. L-13 PRODUCED
1035000
1928
Latina & Revilo Olivers

The Oliver Typewriter Company manufatured nickel-plated Oliver models 3, 5, 6, and 7 for sale in Latin America. The No. L-10 is the nickel-plated version of the No. 9 and Nos. L-12 and L-13 are nickel-plated versions of the No. 11. There are also Latin American Nos. 3 and L-10 with the standard green finish. There are no known examples of nickel-plated Nos. 4, 8, 10, or 12. In Argentina, nickel-plated Olivers were marketed as the Revilo (Oliver spelled backwards) becasue the name Oliver was already trademarked. The only known Revilo models are Nos. 5 and 9.

Revilo Nos. 5 & 9
Revilo No. 5
Revilo No. 5
S/N 275198
© 2017 Auction Team Breker
Cologne, Germany
www.breker.com
  • Rebranded for the Argentinian market

Revilo No. 9
Revilo No. 5
S/N 554030
Sirvent Vigo Mobiliario Contemporáneo
Sirvent Bros.
Rebranded Portables

From the 1930s through the 1950s, the British Oliver Company rebranded many different European portables as Olivers.

Rebranded Portables

From the 1930s through the 1950s, the British Oliver Company rebranded many different European portables as Olivers.

Fortuna & S.I.M.
FortunaSIM
S/N 3793Z
Thomas Fürtig

FortunaSIM
S/N 25522

FortunaSIM
S/N 90024
Sammlung Historischer Schreibmaschinen
Monika & Berthold Kerschbaumer

FortunaSIM
S/N 112554
Thomas Fürtig

The first portables branded with the Oliver name were manufactured in two locations by two different companies. One of these manufacturers was Fortuna Buromaschinen GmbH of Berlin, Germany. This company was formerly known as Stolzenberg-Fortuna, which used to distrubute Olivers in Germany as the Monopol-Stolzenberg and Stolzenberg. The other company that manufactured these early Oliver portables was known simply as Oliver Typewriter (Italy) Ltd., which was a registered corporation of Italy in 1930.

Between serial numbers 80000 and 90000, Oliver Typewriter (Italy) introduced a couple new body styles. For more information on the various name variants produced, see Oliver SIM MAS by typewriters.ch.


FortunaSIM
S/N 84327
Sirvent Vigo Mobiliario Contemporáneo
Sirvent Bros.

FortunaSIM
S/N 112257
Thomas Furtig

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
OLIVER FORTUNA / S.I.M. INTRODUCED
001?
1931
3793Z
70000
1932
84000
1933
86750
1934
89500
1935
91750
1936
94000
1937
96750
1938
99000
1939
101750
1940
104500
1941
107250
1942
110000
1943
112250
1944
115000
1945
120000
1946
122000
1947
191081
LAST OLIVER FORTUNA / S.I.M. PRODUCED
Rebranded Portables

From the 1930s through the 1950s, the British Oliver Company rebranded many different European portables as Olivers.

Patria
Oliver Patria
S/N 5119476
  • Rebranded Swiss machine called the Patria
  • Marketed simply as the "Oliver Portable"
  • Early versions have ring-and glass keys, an "OLIVER" decal above the keyboard instead of a cutout, and no decal of a man

Oliver Patria
S/N 5225810

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
OLIVER PATRIA INTRODUCED
480001
1948
490001
1949
500001
1950
510001
1951
5119476
1951
520001
1952
5225810
1952
530001
1953
540001
1954
LAST OLIVER PATRIA PRODUCED
545000
1954
Rebranded Portables

From the 1930s through the 1950s, the British Oliver Company rebranded many different European portables as Olivers.

Courier, Conquerer, Eaton's, & Simpson's
Oliver Courier
S/N 56-18785
Sammlung Historischer Schreibmaschinen
Monika & Berthold Kerschbaumer

This body style was sold under the names Patria, Japy, and Voss Privat before it was branded by Oliver as the Oliver Courier. In Canada, Oliver marketed it as "Eaton's" and "Simpson's" through their respective department stores. All known Simpson's machines have a dark green crinkle finish. Oliver also sold this model as the "Conquerer".

There are two distinct styles of Oliver Courier. One style displays "Oliver Courier" on a recessed badge on the right-hand side of the cover. The other style displays the name centered on the cover. Similarly, the Simpson's variant also has two styles. One displays "Simpson's" on a badge on the right-hand side of the cover while the other has a decal centered on the cover.


Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
OLIVER COURIER / CONQUERER / EATON'S / SIMPSON'S INTRODUCED
54-0001
1954
55-5001
1955
55-15112
1955
55-20000
1955
56-10000
1956
56-40000
1956
57-32800
1957
57-42839
1957
A1/47628
1957
A1/53819
1957
BB/53820
1958
BM/73386
1959
CC/73387
1958
LAST OLIVER COURIER / CONQUERER / EATON'S / SIMPSON'S PRODUCED
CG/79832
1958
Rebranded Portables

From the 1930s through the 1950s, the British Oliver Company rebranded many different European portables as Olivers.

Consort & M-Series (Voss)
Produced from 1952 to May 1959
Oliver MT 10 (Earlier)
Oliver MT 10
S/N 11192
  • Both body styles sold by Voss as DeLuxe, S24, and M-Series
  • Earlier body style sold by Oliver as Consort and M-Series
  • No known Oliver Consort survivors
  • Known Oliver M-Series (Later) models include MDT 10, MT 10, and MT 13

Oliver MT 10 (Later)
Oliver MT 10
S/N 10748

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
OLIVER CONSORT / M-SERIES (EARLIER) INTRODUCED
1952?
11192
LAST OLIVER CONSORT / M-SERIES (EARLIER) PRODUCED
1957?
Navigation
OLIVER M-SERIES (LATER) INTRODUCED
1957?
10748
LAST OLIVER M-SERIES (LATER) PRODUCED
May 1959?
Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock Woodstock
S/N 1009

At first glance, it appears to be an Oliver No. 2. But you notice the odd side handles, and then you see the paper table's elegant decal- it reads WOODSTOCK. This machine has no correlation to the eponymous machines manufactured by the Woodstock Typewriter Company. This Woodstock was manufactured in 1898 by the Oliver Typewriter Company.

The Woodstock was discussed at meetings concerning the Detroit Board of Education's purchase of typewriters for high schools. This group of meetings lasted from September 1898 to January 1899. These meetings were discussed in a pamphlet known as the "Battle of Detroit". This pamphlet was published by the Linotype Company of Montreal, Canada, which was also known as the Canadian Oliver Typewriter Company. According to the pamphlet, a certain Inspector Marr, presumably a member of the Board of Education, showed the committee formed to purchase typewriters an advertisement for the Woodstock in the Fall-Winter 1898-1899 Montgomery Ward Catalogue No. 64 (page 245), apparently in order to question the fairness of the price at which Oliver typewriters had been offered to the Board. W. A. Waterbury, the manager of the Oliver Typewriter Company, explained that the Woodstock was "an unguaranteed, cheap machine of which nineteen were all that were ever made". Waterbury stated, "We have a circular now in print for circulation offering $5,000 for twenty Woodstock typewriters", reinforcing the fact only nineteen were manufactured. He also stated that the Woodstock was manufactured strictly for sale to large department stores, and all nineteen machines were sold to Montgomery Ward and Company, of Chicago. They contracted for the second grade machines which were not to be sold for under $60. The Oliver Typewriter Company stopped manufacture of the Woodstock typewriter after it had been on the market for less than ten months. It is unknown how many machines Montgomery Ward sold.

No machines were known to have survived until a Woodstock with a serial number of 1009, presumably the ninth machine produced, was listed on eBay. I was so astounded that such a rare machine existed that I had to bid on it, and I won!

After conversing with Bobbie, the eBay seller, I learned that this machine made its way into a house owned by a self-proclaimed hoarder named Jim H. near Lancaster, California. She claims Jim does not know where he acquired most of his things, but he would shop at places such as flea markets, Goodwill, and auctions. The Woodstock came out of a house Jim owned for thirty years and never lived in; he used it just for storage. When Bobbie bought the machine, she placed it in her storage with initial intentions of selling it at her booth in an antique shop for $40! However, she researched the machine first, and after finding no information on this Woodstock, she listed it on eBay, figuring it would bring a couple hundred dollars.

Anyway, the machine arrived safe and sound. After examining the machine in detail, I have concluded that the Woodstock is mechanically identical to early Oliver No. 2 machines.1 The major difference between the Woodstock and the Oliver No. 2, aside from the Woodstock branding, is the base. The Woodstock base has altered side handles and, rather than curving inward, the back of the base mirrors the curves made by the front of the base. The base is currently painted black, although it shows runs and has been touched up in a few places. Even the type guards have been painted black, some of which has chipped off, revealing a dark yellow color. The raised parts of the side panels are nickel-plated, while the backgrounds are black.

In my opinion, the Woodstock does not appear to be a second grade machine as W.A. Waterbury had described. I am hard-pressed to find a reason to render the Woodstock a cheaper Oliver No. 2 counterpart. The advertisement in the catalogue even stated that the Woodstock was “complete in a highly finished metal case with handle”. Unfortunately, such a case has yet to resurface. One can only hope a Woodstock in the original case may one day be discovered.

1. There are several iterations of the Oliver No. 2. The earliest iteration has round holes in the ribbon spool covers, the "Open O" logo on the side panels, a cutout of the base under the keyboard, a plastic key comb, curved metal springs for the spacing mechanism, a pivoting bearing for the shifting mechanism, and thinner key mounts. This iteration shows the 1894, 1895, and 1896 patent dates. I believe The "Open O" logo was introduced when the 1898 patent date was added. This is the iteration to which the Woodstock is most related. Later, the 1891 patent was listed on the machines. When this occurred, the second to last iteration of Oliver No. 2 was introduced. This style was given later style ribbon spool covers with elongated holes, a solid base under the keyboard, a metal key comb, coil springs for the spacing mechanism (including other minor mechanical differences), a simpler wheel bearing for the shifting mechanism, and wider key mounts. The last iteration adds a model number on the paper table.

Fall-Winter 1898-1899 Catalogue
Montgomery Ward Records, Box 64
American Heritage Center | University of Wyoming

Woodstock Ad

The First Woodstock
by Alexander "Sandy" Sellers
ETCetera No. 29 (p. 3)

ETC 29-3

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
WOODSTOCK INTRODUCED
1001
1898
ONLY KNOWN WOODSTOCK
1009
1898
LAST WOODSTOCK PRODUCED
1019
1898
A. Gregor & Co. Olivers

A. Greger & Co., a bicycle manufacturer in Vienna, Austria, produced the Oliver No. 3 rebranded as the Courier. This machine was also produced as the Jacobi for a German office equipment dealer in Munich. The name "Jacobi" was taken from A. Greger and Company's sewing machine division. The Czech variation of the Courier is the Jwic. Physical "production" of the Courier and variant machines ended in 1919; parts that were already manufactured were being assembled until 1927.

When the Oliver No. 5 was introduced in the U.S., the type guards of Courier/Jacobi/Jwic machines used the new Oliver No. 5 style. An updated model was produced beginning at serial number 13276/14094. The olive green paint was discontinued in favor of black paint. The Courier's paper table logo changed from "Courier" to "The Courier Typewriter". The ribbon reverse plaque changed to the style of Oliver No. 5 machines. When the backspacer was introduced on the Oliver No. 5, the Courier/Jacobi/Jwic machines also featured it.

Remodelled Oliver
Earlier
Remodelled Oliver
S/N RM10187

The Oliver Typewriter (Sales) Company, Ltd. remodelled some Oliver No. 9 machines in the style of Oliver Nos. 11/15 (Earlier)/16 machines- black with gold pinstriping. Machines were still being remodelled after the name was changed to the Oliver Typewriter Manufacturing Company. Early Remodelled Olivers have the original Oliver No. 9 decal on the front while later ones were given a new decal that says "REMODELLED OLIVER".

The Remodelled Olivers were given new serial numbers in place of the old ones on the frames of the machines starting at RM10001. The new numbers have the prefix "RM" meaning "Remodelled". The old numbers on the carriages were removed without a new number in place.

  • 5 known survivors

Later
Remodelled Oliver
S/N RM10642

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
FIRST REMODELLED OLIVER
RM10001?
1928?
EARLIEST KNOWN REMODELLED OLIVER
RM10187
LATEST KNOWN REMODELLED OLIVER
RM10642
LAST REMODELLED OLIVER
1933
Four Bank Prototype

The Unknown Oliver, by Darryl Rehr
ETCetera No. 6, pages 1 and 4

UnknownOliver1
UnknownOliver2
Oliver Way-billing

A trade catalogue from around 1899 (Peter Weil Archives) offers for sale a modified Oliver No. 2 known as the Oliver Way-billing Typewriter. This machine has a tabulator attached to the side. This tabulator was later advertised as a separate attachment for sale in Oliver No. 3 brochures.

Oliver Way-billing

Oliver Way-billing
  • No known Oliver Way-billing survivors and no known tabulator attachments

Oliver Way-billing

Oliver Way-billing
A. Gregor & Co. Olivers

A. Greger & Co., a bicycle manufacturer in Vienna, Austria, produced the Oliver No. 3 rebranded as the Courier. This machine was also produced as the Jacobi for a German office equipment dealer in Munich. The name "Jacobi" was taken from A. Greger and Company's sewing machine division. The Czech variation of the Courier is the Jwic. Physical "production" of the Courier and variant machines ended in 1919; parts that were already manufactured were being assembled until 1927.

When the Oliver No. 5 was introduced in the U.S., the type guards of Courier/Jacobi/Jwic machines used the new Oliver No. 5 style. An updated model was produced beginning at serial number 13276/14094. The olive green paint was discontinued in favor of black paint. The Courier's paper table logo changed from "Courier" to "The Courier Typewriter". The ribbon reverse plaque changed to the style of Oliver No. 5 machines. When the backspacer was introduced on the Oliver No. 5, the Courier/Jacobi/Jwic machines also featured it.

Courier, Jacobi, & Jwic
Courier (Earlier)
Courier
S/N 11934
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard
Sammlung Historischer Schreibmaschinen
Monika & Berthold Kerschbaumer

Jacobi
Jacobi
S/N 11668
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard
© 2017 Auction Team Breker
Cologne, Germany
www.breker.com
  • 3 known Jacobi survivors, 2 known Jwic survivors

Courier (Later)
Courier
S/N 17996
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard

Jwic
Jacobi
S/N 11778
German "QWERTZ" Keyboard

Navigation
SERIAL NO.
DATE
Navigation
COURIER / JACOBI / JWIC INTRODUCED
10001?
1903
EARLIEST KNOWN OF ALL 3 NAME VARIATIONS
11488
1906?
EARLIEST KNOWN JACOBI
11668
1906?
EARLIEST KNOWN JWIC
11778
1906?
TYPE GUARD STYLE UPDATED
12337/12787
1908?
UPDATED BLACK FINISH VERSION INTRODUCED (WITH BACKSPACER)
13276/14094
1910/1911?
-18800
1922?
-19970
1924?
LATEST KNOWN OF ALL 3 NAME VARIATIONS, LATEST KNOWN JACOBI
20092
1925?
LAST COURIER / JACOBI / JWIC PRODUCED
1927
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